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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Ross, Heather; Sawhill, Isabel V.; MacIntosh, Anita R.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1975

    Single parent families, usually headed by women, are transitional in two important senses: they frequently represent a transitional stage between marriages; and they are a symptom of the transition from a "distributive" family structure, in which a man provides resources for financially dependent women and children, to a form characterized by less specialized marital roles and more equal sharing of the physical care and financial support of children. This book examines the social and public policy implications of these changes. It is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Introduction," provides reasons for research and explanations for change. Chapter 2, "Families Headed by Women: Their Growth and Changing Composition," explores recent trends and family demography. Chapter 3,"Marital Instability," examines marriage from psychological, economic, and social perspectives. Chapter 4, "Race and Family Structure," discusses racial family differences and recent trends in female headedness among black families. Chapter 5, "Welfare and Female-Headed Families," examines the roles of...

    Single parent families, usually headed by women, are transitional in two important senses: they frequently represent a transitional stage between marriages; and they are a symptom of the transition from a "distributive" family structure, in which a man provides resources for financially dependent women and children, to a form characterized by less specialized marital roles and more equal sharing of the physical care and financial support of children. This book examines the social and public policy implications of these changes. It is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Introduction," provides reasons for research and explanations for change. Chapter 2, "Families Headed by Women: Their Growth and Changing Composition," explores recent trends and family demography. Chapter 3,"Marital Instability," examines marriage from psychological, economic, and social perspectives. Chapter 4, "Race and Family Structure," discusses racial family differences and recent trends in female headedness among black families. Chapter 5, "Welfare and Female-Headed Families," examines the roles of eligibility, benefits, and incentives. Chapter 6, "What Happens to Children in Female-Headed Families?" evaluates existing knowledge and explores negative consequences for children. Chapter 7, "The Family in Transition," sums up the book's themes and suggests new directions for research and public policy. A bibliography is appended to each chapter. The book includes six appendices providing various types of statistical analysis, 50 statistical tables, and four figures. An author and subject index is included. (publisher abstract)

  • Individual Author: Garfinkel, Irwin; McLanahan, Sara S.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1986

    The proportion of children living in households headed by single women is more than one in five. There is concern (and some evidence) that children of single parents are less likely to be successful adults. The book discusses the trends in public debate about this problem. In particular, it examines the issue of providing public assistance to such families and whether doing so fosters long-term welfare dependency. (publisher abstract)

    The proportion of children living in households headed by single women is more than one in five. There is concern (and some evidence) that children of single parents are less likely to be successful adults. The book discusses the trends in public debate about this problem. In particular, it examines the issue of providing public assistance to such families and whether doing so fosters long-term welfare dependency. (publisher abstract)

  • Individual Author: Geen, Rob; Boots, Shelley W.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    Child welfare services encompass a broad range of activities, including investigating alleged incidents of abuse and neglect, protecting victimized children, supporting and preserving families, and assisting children who must be temporarily or permanently removed from their parents' homes. Child welfare agencies are an integral part of the public social services safety net. They often act as the provider of last resort since state laws assign them legal responsibility for ensuring the safety of all vulnerable children regardless of a family's income or legal status or the cost of services needed.

    The landmark welfare reform legislation signed by President Clinton in August 1996 significantly alters this safety net. In replacing Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) removed the entitlement for families with incomes below a certain level to receive financial assistance from the federal government. While it made few changes to federal child...

    Child welfare services encompass a broad range of activities, including investigating alleged incidents of abuse and neglect, protecting victimized children, supporting and preserving families, and assisting children who must be temporarily or permanently removed from their parents' homes. Child welfare agencies are an integral part of the public social services safety net. They often act as the provider of last resort since state laws assign them legal responsibility for ensuring the safety of all vulnerable children regardless of a family's income or legal status or the cost of services needed.

    The landmark welfare reform legislation signed by President Clinton in August 1996 significantly alters this safety net. In replacing Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) removed the entitlement for families with incomes below a certain level to receive financial assistance from the federal government. While it made few changes to federal child protection programs specifically, provisions of the legislation have potentially far-reaching effects on the child welfare system. In particular, it may both directly and indirectly affect the financing of child welfare services. This brief explores the implications and potential direct effects of the new welfare regulations on the funds available for child protection programs, states' ability to collect federal foster care and adoption assistance reimbursements, and state methods for financing kinship foster care. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Davies, Jill
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 1997

    This paper explores the impact of implementing the U.S. federal welfare law entitled, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). In particular, it looks at how the use of the Family Violence Option and the federal block grant program, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), might effect battered women and their children. Its intended primary audiences are domestic violence advocates and others working on domestic violence or welfare issues.

    Information is provided on: interpreting and implementing the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996; the effects of PRWORA on battered women and their children; policy and program responses; an explanation of domestic violence references in the TANF section including the hardship exemption to the 60 month limit on assistance, and, the Family Violence Option; and, a discussion of the Family Violence Option and some recommendations. The paper also includes a definition list of frequently used terms.

    This is the second in a series of complementary...

    This paper explores the impact of implementing the U.S. federal welfare law entitled, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). In particular, it looks at how the use of the Family Violence Option and the federal block grant program, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), might effect battered women and their children. Its intended primary audiences are domestic violence advocates and others working on domestic violence or welfare issues.

    Information is provided on: interpreting and implementing the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996; the effects of PRWORA on battered women and their children; policy and program responses; an explanation of domestic violence references in the TANF section including the hardship exemption to the 60 month limit on assistance, and, the Family Violence Option; and, a discussion of the Family Violence Option and some recommendations. The paper also includes a definition list of frequently used terms.

    This is the second in a series of complementary welfare policy and practice papers produced as part of the Welfare and Domestic Violence Technical Assistance Initiative with the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence(NRC) and the National Network to End Domestic Violence(NNEDV). (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Duncan, Greg; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Aber, J. Lawrence
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1997

    Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment.

    This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between children and community. As...

    Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment.

    This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between children and community. As the essays demonstrate, poverty entails a host of problems that affects the quality of educational, recreational, and child care services. Poor neighborhoods usually share other negative features—particularly racial segregation and a preponderance of single mother families—that may adversely affect children. Yet children are not equally susceptible to the pitfalls of deprived communities. Neighborhood has different effects depending on a child's age, race, and gender, while parenting techniques and a family's degree of community involvement also serve as mitigating factors.

    Volume II incorporates empirical data on neighborhood poverty into discussions of policy and program development. The contributors point to promising community initiatives and suggest methods to strengthen neighborhood-based service programs for children. Several essays analyze the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding the measurement of neighborhood characteristics. These essays focus on the need to expand scientific insight into urban poverty by drawing on broader pools of ethnographic, epidemiological, and quantitative data. Volume II explores the possibilities for a richer and more well-rounded understanding of neighborhood and poverty issues.

    To grasp the human cost of poverty, we must clearly understand how living in distressed neighborhoods impairs children's ability to function at every level. Neighborhood Poverty explores the multiple and complex paths between community, family, and childhood development. These two volumes provide and indispensable guide for social policy and demonstrate the power of interdisciplinary social science to probe complex social issues. (author abstract) 

    Table of Contents

    Introduction - Martha Gephart and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    Chapter 1: Ecological Perspectives on the Neighborhood Context of Urban Poverty: Past and Present - Robert Sampson and Jeffrey Morenoff

    Chapter 2: The Influence of Neighborhoods on Children's Development: A Theoretical Perspective and a Research Agenda - Frank Furstenberg and Mary Elizabeth Hughes

    Chapter 3: Bringing Families Back In: Neighborhood Effects on Child Development - Robin Jarrett

    Chapter 4: Understanding the Neighborhood Context for Children and Families: Combining Epidemiological and Ethnographic Approaches - Jill Korbin and Claudia Coulton

    Chapter 5: Sibling Estimates of Neighborhood Effects - Daniel Aaronson

    Chapter 6: Capturing Social Process for Testing Mediational Models of Neighborhood Effects - Thomas Cook, Shobha Shagle, and Serdar Degirmencioglu

    Chapter 7: Community Influences on Adolescent Achievement and Deviance - Nancy Darling and Laurence Steinberg

    Chapter 8: On Ways of Thinking about Measuring Neighborhoods: Implications for Studying Context and Developmental Outcomes for Children - Linda Burton, Townsand Price-Spratlen, and Margaret Beale Spencer 

    Chapter 9: An Alternative Approach to Assessing Neighborhood Effects on Early Adolescent Achievement and Problem Behavior - Margaret Beale Spencer, Paul McDermott, Linda Burton, and Tedd Jay Kochman

    Chapter 10: Neighborhood Effects and State and Local Policy - Prudence Brown and Harold Richman

    Chapter 11: Communities as Place, Face, and Space: Provision of Services to Poor, Urban Children and Their Families

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