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  • Individual Author: Duncan, Greg; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Aber, J. Lawrence
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1997

    Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment.

    This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between children and community. As...

    Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment.

    This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between children and community. As the essays demonstrate, poverty entails a host of problems that affects the quality of educational, recreational, and child care services. Poor neighborhoods usually share other negative features—particularly racial segregation and a preponderance of single mother families—that may adversely affect children. Yet children are not equally susceptible to the pitfalls of deprived communities. Neighborhood has different effects depending on a child's age, race, and gender, while parenting techniques and a family's degree of community involvement also serve as mitigating factors.

    Volume II incorporates empirical data on neighborhood poverty into discussions of policy and program development. The contributors point to promising community initiatives and suggest methods to strengthen neighborhood-based service programs for children. Several essays analyze the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding the measurement of neighborhood characteristics. These essays focus on the need to expand scientific insight into urban poverty by drawing on broader pools of ethnographic, epidemiological, and quantitative data. Volume II explores the possibilities for a richer and more well-rounded understanding of neighborhood and poverty issues.

    To grasp the human cost of poverty, we must clearly understand how living in distressed neighborhoods impairs children's ability to function at every level. Neighborhood Poverty explores the multiple and complex paths between community, family, and childhood development. These two volumes provide and indispensable guide for social policy and demonstrate the power of interdisciplinary social science to probe complex social issues. (author abstract) 

    Table of Contents

    Introduction - Martha Gephart and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    Chapter 1: Ecological Perspectives on the Neighborhood Context of Urban Poverty: Past and Present - Robert Sampson and Jeffrey Morenoff

    Chapter 2: The Influence of Neighborhoods on Children's Development: A Theoretical Perspective and a Research Agenda - Frank Furstenberg and Mary Elizabeth Hughes

    Chapter 3: Bringing Families Back In: Neighborhood Effects on Child Development - Robin Jarrett

    Chapter 4: Understanding the Neighborhood Context for Children and Families: Combining Epidemiological and Ethnographic Approaches - Jill Korbin and Claudia Coulton

    Chapter 5: Sibling Estimates of Neighborhood Effects - Daniel Aaronson

    Chapter 6: Capturing Social Process for Testing Mediational Models of Neighborhood Effects - Thomas Cook, Shobha Shagle, and Serdar Degirmencioglu

    Chapter 7: Community Influences on Adolescent Achievement and Deviance - Nancy Darling and Laurence Steinberg

    Chapter 8: On Ways of Thinking about Measuring Neighborhoods: Implications for Studying Context and Developmental Outcomes for Children - Linda Burton, Townsand Price-Spratlen, and Margaret Beale Spencer 

    Chapter 9: An Alternative Approach to Assessing Neighborhood Effects on Early Adolescent Achievement and Problem Behavior - Margaret Beale Spencer, Paul McDermott, Linda Burton, and Tedd Jay Kochman

    Chapter 10: Neighborhood Effects and State and Local Policy - Prudence Brown and Harold Richman

    Chapter 11: Communities as Place, Face, and Space: Provision of Services to Poor, Urban Children and Their Families

  • Individual Author: Lloyd, Susan
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    This article presents some results of a random household survey that examined the effects of domestic violence on the labor force participation of 824 women living in a low-income neighborhood. It also uses data from twenty-four long interviews.

    Eighteen percent of the respondents reported having experienced physical aggression in the past twelve months, and 11.9% reported more severe physical violence. Women who reported abuse were more likely to have experienced unemployment and held more jobs and to report more health problems. They also had lower personal incomes, and were significantly more likely to receive public assistance. At the same time, women who reported abuse were employed in roughly the same numbers as those who did not. Thus, it appears that domestic violence may depress women’s socioeconomic and occupational status attainment over time, but does not affect employment status per se. The article concludes with comments about the implications of the findings for the redesign of public assistance and job training programs. (author abstract)

    This article presents some results of a random household survey that examined the effects of domestic violence on the labor force participation of 824 women living in a low-income neighborhood. It also uses data from twenty-four long interviews.

    Eighteen percent of the respondents reported having experienced physical aggression in the past twelve months, and 11.9% reported more severe physical violence. Women who reported abuse were more likely to have experienced unemployment and held more jobs and to report more health problems. They also had lower personal incomes, and were significantly more likely to receive public assistance. At the same time, women who reported abuse were employed in roughly the same numbers as those who did not. Thus, it appears that domestic violence may depress women’s socioeconomic and occupational status attainment over time, but does not affect employment status per se. The article concludes with comments about the implications of the findings for the redesign of public assistance and job training programs. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Dubowitz, Howard
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1999

    Although child neglect is the most common form of abuse, the extant research literature has mostly ignored this form of child maltreatment. Now editor Howard Dubowitz and an outstanding group of leaders in the field of child abuse and neglect offer perspectives on a range of important issues pertaining to the neglect of children. Neglected Children is the first book to focus on this most common type of child maltreatment, presenting a comprehensive and critical portrait of the phenomenon of neglect, based on theory, research, and clinical practice experience. This extensive work includes the following topics:

    • Causes and contributors
    • Definitions and measurement research
    • Cultural issues
    • Short and long-term outcomes
    • Evaluation and risk assessment
    • Prevention and intervention
    • Prenatal substance abuse
    • Fatal neglect
    • Policy issues

    Neglected Children conveniently captures much of what is known about child neglect and offers recommendations for future research. Researchers, clinicians, students...

    Although child neglect is the most common form of abuse, the extant research literature has mostly ignored this form of child maltreatment. Now editor Howard Dubowitz and an outstanding group of leaders in the field of child abuse and neglect offer perspectives on a range of important issues pertaining to the neglect of children. Neglected Children is the first book to focus on this most common type of child maltreatment, presenting a comprehensive and critical portrait of the phenomenon of neglect, based on theory, research, and clinical practice experience. This extensive work includes the following topics:

    • Causes and contributors
    • Definitions and measurement research
    • Cultural issues
    • Short and long-term outcomes
    • Evaluation and risk assessment
    • Prevention and intervention
    • Prenatal substance abuse
    • Fatal neglect
    • Policy issues

    Neglected Children conveniently captures much of what is known about child neglect and offers recommendations for future research. Researchers, clinicians, students, and policy makers in the fields of social work, child maltreatment, interpersonal violence, family studies, psychology, sociology, and public health will find this broad view of the subject essential to addressing the complex and pervasive underpinnings of child neglect. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents:

    Chapter 1: Child Neglect: The Family With a Hole in the Middle – James Garbarino and Cyleste C. Collins

    Chapter 2: Child Neglect: A Review of Definitions and Measurement Research – Susan J Zuravin

    Chapter 3: Child Neglect: Causes and Contributions – Patricia McKinsey Crittenden

    Chapter 4: Cultural Competence and Child Neglect – Jill E. Korbin and James C. Spilsbury

    Chapter 5: Child Neglect: Short-Term and Long-Term Outcomes – James M. Gaudin, Jr.

    Chapter 6: Neglect of Children’s Health Care – Howard Dubowitz

    Chapter 7: Prenatal Alcohol and Drug Use and Rick of Child Maltreatment: A timely Approach to Intervention – Ian J. Chasnoff and Lee Ann Lowder

    Chapter 8: Fatal Child Neglect – Barbara L. Bonner, Sheila M. Crow, and Mary Beth Logue

    Chapter 9: The Prevention of Child Neglect – E. Wayne Holden and Laura Nabors

    Chapter 10: Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Child Neglect in Public Child Protection Services – Diana J. English

    Chapter 11: Intervening With Families When Children Are Neglected – Diane DePanfilis

    Chapter 12: Are Battered Women Bad Mothers? Rethinking the Terminal of Abused Women’s Parental Rights for Failure to Protect – Thomas D. Lyon

    Chapter 13: Child Neglect: Research Recommendations and Future Directions – Maureen M. Black and Howard Dubowitz

    Chapter 14: Policy Issues in Child Neglect – Richard J. Gelles

  • Individual Author: Minkler, Meredith; Duerr Berrick, Jill; Needell, Barbara
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    Debate over the potential impacts of welfare reform largely has ignored the implications of these changes for the growing number of grandparents who are raising their grandchildren. Results of a qualitative study involving 36 key informants who were intimately involved in the crafting and/or implementation of California's welfare reform plan are presented. Particular attention is focused on time limits on aid, work requirements, and sanctions regarding teenage parenthood as these may impact on grandparent caregivers and their families. Cross-cutting themes also are presented. A case is made for greatly stepping up data collection and evaluative research that may help in determining the actual impacts of the legislation on intergenerational households headed by grandparents.(author abstract)

    This resource was previously published as a working paper by the Public Policy Institute of California.

    Debate over the potential impacts of welfare reform largely has ignored the implications of these changes for the growing number of grandparents who are raising their grandchildren. Results of a qualitative study involving 36 key informants who were intimately involved in the crafting and/or implementation of California's welfare reform plan are presented. Particular attention is focused on time limits on aid, work requirements, and sanctions regarding teenage parenthood as these may impact on grandparent caregivers and their families. Cross-cutting themes also are presented. A case is made for greatly stepping up data collection and evaluative research that may help in determining the actual impacts of the legislation on intergenerational households headed by grandparents.(author abstract)

    This resource was previously published as a working paper by the Public Policy Institute of California.

  • Individual Author: Knox, Virginia; Redcross, Cindy
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    For the past two decades, the nation's efforts to reform the welfare system and the child support system have often proceeded on separate tracks. However, there has been a growing realization that neither has very explicitly considered how to work with the group of men who bridge them both: low-income noncustodial fathers whose children receive welfare. The Parents' Fair Share (PFS) Demonstration, run from 1994 to 1996, was aimed at increasing the ability of these fathers to attain well-paying jobs, increase their child support payments — to increase their involvement in parenting in other ways. These reports — one examining the effectiveness of the PFS approach at increasing fathers' financial and nonfinancial involvement with their children and the other examining the effectiveness of the PFS approach at increasing fathers' employment and earnings — provide important insights into policies aimed at this key group. (author abstract)

    For the past two decades, the nation's efforts to reform the welfare system and the child support system have often proceeded on separate tracks. However, there has been a growing realization that neither has very explicitly considered how to work with the group of men who bridge them both: low-income noncustodial fathers whose children receive welfare. The Parents' Fair Share (PFS) Demonstration, run from 1994 to 1996, was aimed at increasing the ability of these fathers to attain well-paying jobs, increase their child support payments — to increase their involvement in parenting in other ways. These reports — one examining the effectiveness of the PFS approach at increasing fathers' financial and nonfinancial involvement with their children and the other examining the effectiveness of the PFS approach at increasing fathers' employment and earnings — provide important insights into policies aimed at this key group. (author abstract)

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