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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Barton, Paul E.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    This report attempts to assemble data on the trends that are favorable or unfavorable to independence from welfare. Twelve such conditions are examined in this report, and they are summarized in table form, with an indication of the direction of the trend and comments. The information is also summarized in narrative form to give an idea of what may be expected for welfare in the future. Overall, the trends that relate to family structure are unfavorable, with a slightly decreasing birth rate outside marriage being offset by the increase in births to teenage mothers. Figures relating to poverty that causes people to seek welfare assistance have been fairly constant. The proportion of the poor who do apply for welfare is rising, and contributing to higher dependency rates. Trend data are not available for literacy, an important component of independence, but the current state of literacy is not favorable for reducing dependence. The state of the economy is favorable to fostering independence; and the job market, while it has been unfavorable for welfare dependent persons, is...

    This report attempts to assemble data on the trends that are favorable or unfavorable to independence from welfare. Twelve such conditions are examined in this report, and they are summarized in table form, with an indication of the direction of the trend and comments. The information is also summarized in narrative form to give an idea of what may be expected for welfare in the future. Overall, the trends that relate to family structure are unfavorable, with a slightly decreasing birth rate outside marriage being offset by the increase in births to teenage mothers. Figures relating to poverty that causes people to seek welfare assistance have been fairly constant. The proportion of the poor who do apply for welfare is rising, and contributing to higher dependency rates. Trend data are not available for literacy, an important component of independence, but the current state of literacy is not favorable for reducing dependence. The state of the economy is favorable to fostering independence; and the job market, while it has been unfavorable for welfare dependent persons, is improving. The trends in social deviancy (crime in particular) are not favorable to reducing dependence. If people are removed from the welfare rolls because of arbitrary time caps, the rate of being on welfare will not reflect need. New measures of deprivation may be needed to show how many people are in great need, independent of the welfare rate. The following indicators are discussed: (1) literacy; (2) poverty; (3) employment prospects; (4) early sexual intercourse; (5) births outside of marriage; (6) establishing fatherhood; (7) child support enforcement; (8) intergenerational dependence; (9) teenage violent crime; (10) adult incarceration; (11) the welfare choice; and (12) deprivation indicators. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Rose, Dina R.; Clear, Todd R.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Reentry may be thought of as a community-level process when it occurs in high concentrations. The concepts of social capital and collective efficacy have been used to explain the production and maintenance of disadvantage and its consequences. This paper considers the implications of reentry for social capital and collective efficacy, through its impact on families and other neighborhood collectives and institutions, in neighborhoods that experience concentrated levels of reentry. We show how reentry may affect social capital and collective efficacy either positively or negatively, depending upon how ex-offenders, family members, and neighbors react to reentry problems as they arise. The ramifications of these effects for children are also described. We conclude with a description of approaches to supporting the reentry process that promise to strengthen social capital and collective efficacy. (author abstract)

    Reentry may be thought of as a community-level process when it occurs in high concentrations. The concepts of social capital and collective efficacy have been used to explain the production and maintenance of disadvantage and its consequences. This paper considers the implications of reentry for social capital and collective efficacy, through its impact on families and other neighborhood collectives and institutions, in neighborhoods that experience concentrated levels of reentry. We show how reentry may affect social capital and collective efficacy either positively or negatively, depending upon how ex-offenders, family members, and neighbors react to reentry problems as they arise. The ramifications of these effects for children are also described. We conclude with a description of approaches to supporting the reentry process that promise to strengthen social capital and collective efficacy. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Weiman, David; Western, Bruce ; Patillo, Mary
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2002

    Over the last thirty years, the U.S. penal population increased from around 300,000 to more than two million, with more than half a million prisoners returning to their home communities each year. What are the social costs to the communities from which this vast incarcerated population comes? And what happens to these communities when former prisoners return as free men and women in need of social and economic support? In Imprisoning America, an interdisciplinary group of leading researchers in economics, criminal justice, psychology, sociology, and social work goes beyond a narrow focus on crime to examine the connections between incarceration and family formation, labor markets, political participation, and community well-being.

    The book opens with a consideration of the impact of incarceration on families. Using a national survey of young parents, Bruce Western and colleagues show the enduring corrosive effects of incarceration on marriage and cohabitation, even after a prison sentence has been served. Kathryn Edin, Timothy Nelson, and Rechelle Parnal use in-depth life...

    Over the last thirty years, the U.S. penal population increased from around 300,000 to more than two million, with more than half a million prisoners returning to their home communities each year. What are the social costs to the communities from which this vast incarcerated population comes? And what happens to these communities when former prisoners return as free men and women in need of social and economic support? In Imprisoning America, an interdisciplinary group of leading researchers in economics, criminal justice, psychology, sociology, and social work goes beyond a narrow focus on crime to examine the connections between incarceration and family formation, labor markets, political participation, and community well-being.

    The book opens with a consideration of the impact of incarceration on families. Using a national survey of young parents, Bruce Western and colleagues show the enduring corrosive effects of incarceration on marriage and cohabitation, even after a prison sentence has been served. Kathryn Edin, Timothy Nelson, and Rechelle Parnal use in-depth life histories of low-income men in Philadelphia and Charleston, to study how incarceration not only damages but sometimes strengthens relations between fathers and their children. Imprisoning America then turns to how mass incarceration affects local communities and society at large. Christopher Uggen and Jeff Manza use survey data and interviews with thirty former felons to explore the political ramifications of disenfranchising inmates and former felons. Harry Holzer, Stephen Raphael, and Michael Stoll examine how poor labor market opportunities for former prisoners are shaped by employers’ (sometimes unreliable) background checks. Jeremy Travis concludes that corrections policy must extend beyond incarceration to help former prisoners reconnect with their families, communities, and the labor market. He recommends greater collaboration between prison officials and officials in child and family welfare services, educational and job training programs, and mental and public health agencies.

    Imprisoning America vividly illustrates that the experience of incarceration itself—and not just the criminal involvement of inmates—negatively affects diverse aspects of social membership. By contributing to the social exclusion of an already marginalized population, mass incarceration may actually increase crime rates, and threaten the public safety it was designed to secure. A rigorous portrayal of the pitfalls of getting tough on crime, Imprisoning America highlights the pressing need for new policies to support ex-prisoners and the families and communities to which they return. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1: Introduction; Bruce Western, Mary Pattillo, and David Weiman

    PART I: FAMILIES

    Chapter 2: Incarceration and the Bonds Between Parents in Fragile Families; Bruce Western, Leonard M. Lopoo, and Sara McLanahan

    Chapter 3: Fatherhood and Incarceration as Potential Turning Points in the Criminal Careers of Unskilled Men; Kathryn Edin, Timothy J. Nelson, and Rechelle Paranal

    Chapter 4: Returning to Strangers: Newly Paroled Young Fathers and Their Children; Anne M. Nurse

    Chapter 5: Children of Incarcerated Parents: Multiple Risks and Children’s Living Arrangements; Elizabeth I. Johnson and Jane Waldfogel

    PART II: COMMUNITIES

    Chapter 6: Effects of Incarceration on Informal Social Control in Communities; James P. Lynch and William J. Sabol

    Chapter 7: Lost Voices: The Civic and Political Views of Disenfranchised Felons; Christopher Uggen and Jeff Manza

    Chapter 8: Will Employers Hire Former Offenders?: Employer Preferences, Background Checks, and Their Determinants; Harry J. Holzer, Steven Raphael, and Michael A. Stoll

    CONCLUSION

    Chapter 9: Reentry and Reintegration: New Perspectives on the Challenges of Mass Incarceration; Jeremy Travis

  • Individual Author: Pearson, Jessica; Davis, Lanae
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    This article describes characteristics, service experiences, and outcomes for 350 ex-offenders with minor-aged children who were served at the John Inman Work and Family Center (WFC), a multiservice program offering assistance with employment, child support, and family reconnection. Following their visit to the WFC, fathers had higher rates of employment and child support payment. They also returned to prison at lower rates than the general offender population. Although the findings suggest that parents who leave prison benefit from a collaborative facility that offers multiple services, more rigorous research over longer periods of time is needed to reliably assess the effectiveness of reentry programs. (author abstract)

    This article describes characteristics, service experiences, and outcomes for 350 ex-offenders with minor-aged children who were served at the John Inman Work and Family Center (WFC), a multiservice program offering assistance with employment, child support, and family reconnection. Following their visit to the WFC, fathers had higher rates of employment and child support payment. They also returned to prison at lower rates than the general offender population. Although the findings suggest that parents who leave prison benefit from a collaborative facility that offers multiple services, more rigorous research over longer periods of time is needed to reliably assess the effectiveness of reentry programs. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Roy, Kevin M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2004

    Using life history interviews with 40 noncustodial fathers in Chicago and 37 incarcerated fathers in Indiana, I explore the construction of paternal provider roles in low-income and working-class families. Fathers with stable jobs retained high expectations for providing but found that employment could limit and even harm paternal involvement. Underemployed fathers, or fathers out of work, lowered expectations for providing and crafted a version of involvement that was more than just providing. The study suggests that a focus on context and process can expand theoretical frameworks of work/family decisions for non-middle class families. Implications for policies include increasing opportunities for fathers to attain stable employment and restructuring work/family policies to alter expectations for men's success as providers. (author abstract)

    Using life history interviews with 40 noncustodial fathers in Chicago and 37 incarcerated fathers in Indiana, I explore the construction of paternal provider roles in low-income and working-class families. Fathers with stable jobs retained high expectations for providing but found that employment could limit and even harm paternal involvement. Underemployed fathers, or fathers out of work, lowered expectations for providing and crafted a version of involvement that was more than just providing. The study suggests that a focus on context and process can expand theoretical frameworks of work/family decisions for non-middle class families. Implications for policies include increasing opportunities for fathers to attain stable employment and restructuring work/family policies to alter expectations for men's success as providers. (author abstract)

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