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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Goerge, Robert; Bilaver, Lucy; Joo Lee, Bong; Needell, Barbara; Brookhart, Alan; Jackman, William
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    There is a widespread belief that young people who “age out” of foster care near the time that they turn 18 are particularly vulnerable to poor economic and social outcomes as they enter adulthood. Over the past few years, significantly more attention has been paid to youth aging out of foster care and more concern expressed for their future prospects. The 1999 Foster Care Independence Act provides fiscal incentives to states for enhanced services to these youth. In addition, the Act requires states to evaluate their services to this population of young people, and has provided additional resources to do so.

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the employment outcomes of children exiting foster care near their eighteenth birthdays in California, Illinois, and South Carolina during the mid-1990s. We report when they begin to have earnings, in how many quarters over a 13-quarter time period they had earned income, and the amount of earned income they received over that time period. We compare these outcomes to those for youth who were reunified with their...

    There is a widespread belief that young people who “age out” of foster care near the time that they turn 18 are particularly vulnerable to poor economic and social outcomes as they enter adulthood. Over the past few years, significantly more attention has been paid to youth aging out of foster care and more concern expressed for their future prospects. The 1999 Foster Care Independence Act provides fiscal incentives to states for enhanced services to these youth. In addition, the Act requires states to evaluate their services to this population of young people, and has provided additional resources to do so.

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the employment outcomes of children exiting foster care near their eighteenth birthdays in California, Illinois, and South Carolina during the mid-1990s. We report when they begin to have earnings, in how many quarters over a 13-quarter time period they had earned income, and the amount of earned income they received over that time period. We compare these outcomes to those for youth who were reunified with their parents prior to their eighteenth birthday and to low-income youth.  (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Venohr, Jane C.; Price, David A.; Van Wert, Laurie Davis; Anders, Christa M.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    Landmark welfare reform legislation in 1996 — the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) — changed the landscape of public assistance programs dramatically. First, PRWORA eliminated the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, which was the major source of public assistance to low-income, single-parent families, and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. PRWORA also changed many policies and procedures that govern implementation of the TANF program. Among those changes, it established a 60-month lifetime limit on the receipt of cash assistance. It also eliminated the requirement that states distribute the first $50 of current child support collections to families and instead gave states the option of whether to distribute and how much of child support collections to distribute to families eligible for TANF benefits. In response to the changes authorized by PRWORA, the Minnesota State Legislature passed a child support passthrough law, which was implemented in January 2001. The law included...

    Landmark welfare reform legislation in 1996 — the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) — changed the landscape of public assistance programs dramatically. First, PRWORA eliminated the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, which was the major source of public assistance to low-income, single-parent families, and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. PRWORA also changed many policies and procedures that govern implementation of the TANF program. Among those changes, it established a 60-month lifetime limit on the receipt of cash assistance. It also eliminated the requirement that states distribute the first $50 of current child support collections to families and instead gave states the option of whether to distribute and how much of child support collections to distribute to families eligible for TANF benefits. In response to the changes authorized by PRWORA, the Minnesota State Legislature passed a child support passthrough law, which was implemented in January 2001. The law included the following two key provisions of importance to TANF-eligible families: - All collections of current child support and spousal maintenance must be distributed, or passed through, to the custodial parent; and - All collections passed through to the custodial parent must reduce, dollar for dollar, the amount of cash assistance the family might otherwise have received under TANF. This is known as a zero disregard policy since passed through child support has no effect on the total income the family receives. In seeking to understand the impacts of the passthrough law, the Minnesota Department of Human Services, Child Support Enforcement Division, contracted with  Policy Studies Inc. to conduct an evaluation. (Excerpt from executive summary)

  • Individual Author: Dworsky, Amy
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2005

    This study uses administrative data to examine the self-sufficiency of 8511 former foster youth who were discharged from Wisconsin's out-of-home care system between 1992 and 1998 and were at least 16 years old at the time they were discharged. Three indicators of self-sufficiency were measured: employment, earnings and public assistance receipt. The youth were followed from the quarter in which they were discharged through the fourth quarter of 2000. Most were employed in at least one of the first eight quarters after their discharge, but relatively few had earnings in all eight. Quarterly earnings increased over time, but remained very low. Earnings were still below the poverty threshold even eight years post-discharge. Nearly one fifth of the youth received AFDC/TANF cash assistance in at least one of their first eight quarters after their discharge, and nearly one third received food stamps. Implementation of welfare reform was associated with a reduction in public assistance receipt, although other economic factors are also likely to have contributed to this downward trend....

    This study uses administrative data to examine the self-sufficiency of 8511 former foster youth who were discharged from Wisconsin's out-of-home care system between 1992 and 1998 and were at least 16 years old at the time they were discharged. Three indicators of self-sufficiency were measured: employment, earnings and public assistance receipt. The youth were followed from the quarter in which they were discharged through the fourth quarter of 2000. Most were employed in at least one of the first eight quarters after their discharge, but relatively few had earnings in all eight. Quarterly earnings increased over time, but remained very low. Earnings were still below the poverty threshold even eight years post-discharge. Nearly one fifth of the youth received AFDC/TANF cash assistance in at least one of their first eight quarters after their discharge, and nearly one third received food stamps. Implementation of welfare reform was associated with a reduction in public assistance receipt, although other economic factors are also likely to have contributed to this downward trend. Relationships between these outcome measures and both the demographic characteristics and out-of-home care experiences of these former foster youth were examined using multivariate statistical techniques. The policy and practice implications of the findings are discussed. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ehrle Macomber, Jennifer; Cuccaro-Alamin, Stephanie; Duncan, Dean; Kuehn, Daniel; McDaniel, Marla; Vericker, Tracy; Pergamit, Mike; Needell, Barbara; Kum, Hye-Chung; Stewart, Joy; Lee, Chung-Kwon ; Barth, Richard P.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    This study examines employment outcomes for youth who age out of foster care through their middle twenties in three states: California, Minnesota, and North Carolina. The study linked child welfare, Unemployment Insurance (UI), and public assistance administrative data to assess outcomes. Results suggest that youth who age out of foster care continue to experience poor employment outcomes at age 24 and generally follow one of four employment trajectories as they transition to adulthood.(author abstract)

    This study examines employment outcomes for youth who age out of foster care through their middle twenties in three states: California, Minnesota, and North Carolina. The study linked child welfare, Unemployment Insurance (UI), and public assistance administrative data to assess outcomes. Results suggest that youth who age out of foster care continue to experience poor employment outcomes at age 24 and generally follow one of four employment trajectories as they transition to adulthood.(author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Smith, Kristin E.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    This paper tracks factors contributing to the ups and downs in women’s employment from 1970 to 2010 using regression decompositions focusing on whether changes are due to shifts in the means (composition of women) or due to shifts in coefficients (inclinations of women to work for pay). Compositional shifts in education exerted a positive effect on women’s employment across all decades, while shifts in the composition of other family income, particularly at the highest deciles, depressed married women’s employment over the 1990s contributing to the slowdown in this decade. A positive coefficient effect of education was found in all decades, except the 1990s, when the effect was negative, depressing women’s employment. Further, positive coefficient results for other family income at the highest deciles bolstered married women’s employment over the 1990s. Models are run separately for married and single women demonstrating the varying results of other family income by marital status. This research was supported in part by an Upjohn Institute Early Career Research Award. (Author...

    This paper tracks factors contributing to the ups and downs in women’s employment from 1970 to 2010 using regression decompositions focusing on whether changes are due to shifts in the means (composition of women) or due to shifts in coefficients (inclinations of women to work for pay). Compositional shifts in education exerted a positive effect on women’s employment across all decades, while shifts in the composition of other family income, particularly at the highest deciles, depressed married women’s employment over the 1990s contributing to the slowdown in this decade. A positive coefficient effect of education was found in all decades, except the 1990s, when the effect was negative, depressing women’s employment. Further, positive coefficient results for other family income at the highest deciles bolstered married women’s employment over the 1990s. Models are run separately for married and single women demonstrating the varying results of other family income by marital status. This research was supported in part by an Upjohn Institute Early Career Research Award. (Author abstract)

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