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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Campbell, Frances A.; Ramey, Craig T.; Pungello, Elizabeth; Sparling, Joseph; Miller-Johnson, Shari
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2002

    The high-risk infants who initially enrolled in the Abecedarian Project, a longitudinal prospective study of the benefits of early childhood educational intervention within a child care setting, were followed up as young adults (age 21 years). One hundred-eleven infants were in the original sample; 104 took part in the follow up. Treatment was provided in 2 phases: during preschool and in the primary grades. Participants received either both phases, 1, but not both, or neither. Assignment to groups was random. Those in the preschool treatment group earned significantly higher scores on intellectual and academic measures as young adults, attained significantly more years of total education, were more likely to attend a 4-year college, and showed a reduction in teenaged pregnancy compared with preschool controls. Preschool treatment was associated with educationally meaningful effect sizes on reading and math skills that persisted into adulthood. School-age treatment served to maintain preschool benefits for reading, but by itself, the effects were generally weaker than those of...

    The high-risk infants who initially enrolled in the Abecedarian Project, a longitudinal prospective study of the benefits of early childhood educational intervention within a child care setting, were followed up as young adults (age 21 years). One hundred-eleven infants were in the original sample; 104 took part in the follow up. Treatment was provided in 2 phases: during preschool and in the primary grades. Participants received either both phases, 1, but not both, or neither. Assignment to groups was random. Those in the preschool treatment group earned significantly higher scores on intellectual and academic measures as young adults, attained significantly more years of total education, were more likely to attend a 4-year college, and showed a reduction in teenaged pregnancy compared with preschool controls. Preschool treatment was associated with educationally meaningful effect sizes on reading and math skills that persisted into adulthood. School-age treatment served to maintain preschool benefits for reading, but by itself, the effects were generally weaker than those of the preschool program. Statistically significant differences in the attainment of full economic independence were not found at this stage, but would not be expected among young adults still attending school. The incidence of self-reported violence and lawbreaking was not significantly reduced, although trends in the data favored the treated group. The reported incidence of marijuana use was significantly less among treated individuals. The positive findings with respect to academic skills and increased years of post-secondary education support policies favoring early childhood programs for poor children. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: James Bell Associates
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    The evaluation of AFF, required by ARS 8-881, focuses on the implementation of the AFF community substance abuse prevention and treatment programs at all nine sites, the factors that contribute to their success, and the extent to which the legislature’s outcome goals of increases in timeliness, availability and accessibility of services; recovery from alcohol and drug problems; child safety; permanency for children through reunification; and the achievement of self-sufficiency through employment can be obtained. The focus during the first year of the evaluation was on establishing a cross-agency, client-level data base system, documenting the implementation of AFF through quarterly data collection at each of the AFF sites, and analyzing data on clients’ utilization of services. During the second year of the evaluation, the focus was on continuing to document program implementation through the analysis and reporting of client-level service utilization data and qualitative data gathered from program directors, RBHA representatives, and clients. Analyses also were conducted using...

    The evaluation of AFF, required by ARS 8-881, focuses on the implementation of the AFF community substance abuse prevention and treatment programs at all nine sites, the factors that contribute to their success, and the extent to which the legislature’s outcome goals of increases in timeliness, availability and accessibility of services; recovery from alcohol and drug problems; child safety; permanency for children through reunification; and the achievement of self-sufficiency through employment can be obtained. The focus during the first year of the evaluation was on establishing a cross-agency, client-level data base system, documenting the implementation of AFF through quarterly data collection at each of the AFF sites, and analyzing data on clients’ utilization of services. During the second year of the evaluation, the focus was on continuing to document program implementation through the analysis and reporting of client-level service utilization data and qualitative data gathered from program directors, RBHA representatives, and clients. Analyses also were conducted using the data available to determine early findings with respect to child welfare and employment outcomes as of March 31, 2003. (author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Clarke, Jennifer G.; Hebert, Megan R. ; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S. ; DaSilva, Kristen M. ; Stein, Michael D.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2006

    Objectives. Women in correctional institutions have substantial reproductive health problems, yet they are underserved in receipt of reproductive health care. We assessed the level of risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the reproductive health needs of 484 incarcerated women in Rhode Island to plan an intervention for women returning to the community. Methods. We used a 45-minute survey to assess medical histories, pregnancy and birth control use histories, current pregnancy intentions, substance use during the past 3 months, histories of childhood sexual abuse, and health attitudes and behaviors. Results. Participants had extremely high risks for STDs and pregnancy, which was characterized by inconsistent birth control (66.5%) and condom use (80.4%), multiple partners (38%), and a high prevalence of unplanned pregnancies (83.6%) and STDs (49%). Only 15.4% said it was not likely that they would have sexual relations with a man within 6 months after release. Conclusion. Reproductive health services must be offered to incarcerated...

    Objectives. Women in correctional institutions have substantial reproductive health problems, yet they are underserved in receipt of reproductive health care. We assessed the level of risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the reproductive health needs of 484 incarcerated women in Rhode Island to plan an intervention for women returning to the community. Methods. We used a 45-minute survey to assess medical histories, pregnancy and birth control use histories, current pregnancy intentions, substance use during the past 3 months, histories of childhood sexual abuse, and health attitudes and behaviors. Results. Participants had extremely high risks for STDs and pregnancy, which was characterized by inconsistent birth control (66.5%) and condom use (80.4%), multiple partners (38%), and a high prevalence of unplanned pregnancies (83.6%) and STDs (49%). Only 15.4% said it was not likely that they would have sexual relations with a man within 6 months after release. Conclusion. Reproductive health services must be offered to incarcerated women. Such interventions will benefit the women, the criminal justice systems, and the communities to which the women will return. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Gilchrist, Lewayne; Lee, Jungeun; Oxford, Monica L.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2006

    Purpose

    To determine whether adolescent childbearing mothers “mature out” of substance use as they transition into adulthood, how their substance use compares to that of typical young women of the same ages, and whether there are different patterns of substance use evident in this vulnerable population.

    Methods

    The data come from an ongoing longitudinal study of 240 young women who were unmarried, pregnant, and under age 18 at enrollment. They have been interviewed regularly from pregnancy through 11.5 years postpartum. The data are based on self-reported substance use verified by random urinalysis for drug metabolites.

    Results

    Substance use did not decline during the transition to adulthood nor into early adulthood. With the exception of alcohol, the prevalence of substance use was higher than that of a nationally representative sample of same-aged women. Three distinct patterns of substance use were identified: licit users (cigarettes and/or alcohol), marijuana users, and “hard” drug users...

    Purpose

    To determine whether adolescent childbearing mothers “mature out” of substance use as they transition into adulthood, how their substance use compares to that of typical young women of the same ages, and whether there are different patterns of substance use evident in this vulnerable population.

    Methods

    The data come from an ongoing longitudinal study of 240 young women who were unmarried, pregnant, and under age 18 at enrollment. They have been interviewed regularly from pregnancy through 11.5 years postpartum. The data are based on self-reported substance use verified by random urinalysis for drug metabolites.

    Results

    Substance use did not decline during the transition to adulthood nor into early adulthood. With the exception of alcohol, the prevalence of substance use was higher than that of a nationally representative sample of same-aged women. Three distinct patterns of substance use were identified: licit users (cigarettes and/or alcohol), marijuana users, and “hard” drug users.

    Conclusions

    Clinicians should routinely assess substance use among young mothers who bore children as teenagers, and make referrals for appropriate treatment. Cigarette smoking is especially a cause for concern, given its widespread use and harmful effects for both mothers and their children. Although only a small proportion (about 5%) of young mothers used hard drugs consistently over time, this group will likely require comprehensive interventions that address multiple issues such as mental health and contextual factors to be effective. Future research should address reasons for continued substance use in this population. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Dallaire, Danielle H.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2007

    Despite the dramatic increase in incarcerated mothers that has occurred in the past decades, there is a paucity of family research focusing on the children affected by maternal imprisonment. The present study investigated family environments and intellectual outcomes in 60 children between the ages of 2 and 7 years during their mothers’ incarceration. Multiple methods were used to collect data from children, mothers, and children's nonmaternal caregivers. Results indicated that most children experienced multiple risks across contextual levels. Cumulative caregiver sociodemographic risks predicted children's cognitive abilities, although quality of the home and family environment mediated this relation. Results underscore the importance of children's family environments and highlight the need for increased monitoring, service delivery, and longitudinal research with children of incarcerated mothers and their families. (Author abstract)

    Despite the dramatic increase in incarcerated mothers that has occurred in the past decades, there is a paucity of family research focusing on the children affected by maternal imprisonment. The present study investigated family environments and intellectual outcomes in 60 children between the ages of 2 and 7 years during their mothers’ incarceration. Multiple methods were used to collect data from children, mothers, and children's nonmaternal caregivers. Results indicated that most children experienced multiple risks across contextual levels. Cumulative caregiver sociodemographic risks predicted children's cognitive abilities, although quality of the home and family environment mediated this relation. Results underscore the importance of children's family environments and highlight the need for increased monitoring, service delivery, and longitudinal research with children of incarcerated mothers and their families. (Author abstract)

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