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  • Individual Author: Zill, Nicholas; Furstenberg, Frank Jr.; Peterson, James; Moore, Kristin
    Reference Type: Dataset
    Year: 1990

    Description: The National Survey of Children (NSC) was designed to assess the physical, social, and psychological well-being of American children, to develop a national profile of the way children in the United States live, to permit analysis of the relationships between the conditions of children's lives and measures of child development, and to examine the effects of marital disruption on the development of children and on the operation of single and multi-parent families. Information is provided on the child's well-being, family, experiences with family disruption, behavior, physical health, and mental health.

    Population: Children between the ages of seven and 11, or born between September 1, 1964 and December 31, 1969, living in households in the 48 contiguous states.

    Periodicity: Data collected and available for all three waves – 1976, 1981, 1987.

    Additional relevant topics covered in this dataset: Child development, fertility, family structure.

    (Information adapted from the...

    Description: The National Survey of Children (NSC) was designed to assess the physical, social, and psychological well-being of American children, to develop a national profile of the way children in the United States live, to permit analysis of the relationships between the conditions of children's lives and measures of child development, and to examine the effects of marital disruption on the development of children and on the operation of single and multi-parent families. Information is provided on the child's well-being, family, experiences with family disruption, behavior, physical health, and mental health.

    Population: Children between the ages of seven and 11, or born between September 1, 1964 and December 31, 1969, living in households in the 48 contiguous states.

    Periodicity: Data collected and available for all three waves – 1976, 1981, 1987.

    Additional relevant topics covered in this dataset: Child development, fertility, family structure.

    (Information adapted from the publisher)

    For more information, please see the Compendium of Family-Self Sufficiency Databases.

  • Individual Author: Duncan, Greg; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1997

    One in five American children now live in families with incomes below the poverty line, and their prospects are not bright. Low income is statistically linked with a variety of poor outcomes for children, from low birth weight and poor nutrition in infancy to increased chances of academic failure, emotional distress, and unwed childbirth in adolescence. To address these problems it is not enough to know that money makes a difference; we need to understand how. Consequences of Growing Up Poor is an extensive and illuminating examination of the paths through which economic deprivation damages children at all stages of their development.

    In Consequences of Growing Up Poor, developmental psychologists, economists, and sociologists revisit a large body of studies to answer specific questions about how low income puts children at risk intellectually, emotionally, and physically. Many of their investigations demonstrate that although income clearly creates disadvantages, it does so selectively and in a wide variety of ways. Low-income preschoolers exhibit poorer cognitive and...

    One in five American children now live in families with incomes below the poverty line, and their prospects are not bright. Low income is statistically linked with a variety of poor outcomes for children, from low birth weight and poor nutrition in infancy to increased chances of academic failure, emotional distress, and unwed childbirth in adolescence. To address these problems it is not enough to know that money makes a difference; we need to understand how. Consequences of Growing Up Poor is an extensive and illuminating examination of the paths through which economic deprivation damages children at all stages of their development.

    In Consequences of Growing Up Poor, developmental psychologists, economists, and sociologists revisit a large body of studies to answer specific questions about how low income puts children at risk intellectually, emotionally, and physically. Many of their investigations demonstrate that although income clearly creates disadvantages, it does so selectively and in a wide variety of ways. Low-income preschoolers exhibit poorer cognitive and verbal skills because they are generally exposed to fewer toys, books, and other stimulating experiences in the home. Poor parents also tend to rely on home-based child care, where the quality and amount of attention children receive is inferior to that of professional facilities. In later years, conflict between economically stressed parents increases anxiety and weakens self-esteem in their teenaged children.

    Although they share economic hardships, the home lives of poor children are not homogenous. Consequences of Growing Up Poor investigates whether such family conditions as the marital status, education, and involvement of parents mitigate the ill effects of poverty. Consequences of Growing Up Poor also looks at the importance of timing: Does being poor have a different impact on preschoolers, children, and adolescents? When are children most vulnerable to poverty? Some contributors find that poverty in the prenatal or early childhood years appears to be particularly detrimental to cognitive development and physical health. Others offer evidence that lower income has a stronger negative effect during adolescence than in childhood or adulthood.

    Based on their findings, the editors and contributors to Consequences of Growing Up Poor recommend more sharply focused child welfare policies targeted to specific eras and conditions of poor children's lives. They also weigh the relative need for income supplements, child care subsidies, and home interventions. Consequences of Growing Up Poor describes the extent and causes of hardships for poor children, defines the interaction between income and family, and offers solutions to improve young lives. (author abstract)

    Chapter 1: Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth - Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Greg Duncan, and Nancy Maritato

    Chapter 2: Poverty Trends - Donald Hernandez 

    Chapter 3: Parent Absence or Poverty: Which Matters More? - Sara McLanahan

    Chapter 4: Trends in the Economic Well-Being and Life Chances of America's Children - Susan Mayer

    Chapter 5: Effects of Long-Term Poverty on Physical Health of Children in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Sanders Korenman and Jane Miller

    Chapter 6: Poverty and Patterns of Child Care - NICHD Child Care Research Network 

    Chapter 7: Consequences of Living in Poverty for Young Children's Cognitive and Verbal Ability and Early School Achievement - Judith Smith, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Pamela Klebanov

    Chapter 8: Economic Resources, Parental Practices, and Children's Well-Being - Thomas Hanson, Sara McLanahan, and Elizabeth Thomson

    Chapter 9: Psychosocial Morbidity among Poor Children in Ontario - Ellen Lipman and David Offord

    Chapter 10: Family Economic Hardship and Adolescent Adjustment: Mediating and Moderating Processes - Rand Conger, Katherine Conger, and Glen Elder Jr.

    Chapter 11: The Influence of Poverty on Children's Classroom Placement and Behavior Problems - Linda Pagani, Bernard Boulerice, and Richard Tremblay

    Chapter 12: The Role of Family Income and Sources of Income in Adolescent Achievement - H. Elizabeth Peters and Natalie Mullis

    Chapter 13: Poverty During Adolescence and Subsequent Educational Attainment - Jay Teachman, Kathleen Paasch, Randal Day, and Karen Carver

    Chapter 14: Childhood Poverty and Adolescent Schooling and Fertility Outcomes: Reduced-Form and Structural Estimates - Robert Haveman, Barbara Wolfe, and Kathryn Wilson

    Chapter 15: Race, Sex, and the Intergenerational Transmission of Poverty - Mary Corcoran and Terry Adams

    Chapter 16: The Effects of Parents' Income, Wealth, and Attitudes on Children's Completed Schooling and Self-Esteem - William Axinn, Greg Duncan, and Arland Thornton

    Chapter 17: Does Poverty in Adolescence Affect the Life Chances of High School Graduates? - Robert Hauser and Megan Sweeney

    Chapter 18: Income Effects Across the Life Span: Integration and Interpretation - Greg Duncan and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

  • Individual Author: Duncan, Greg; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Aber, J. Lawrence
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1997

    Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment.

    This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between children and community. As...

    Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment.

    This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between children and community. As the essays demonstrate, poverty entails a host of problems that affects the quality of educational, recreational, and child care services. Poor neighborhoods usually share other negative features—particularly racial segregation and a preponderance of single mother families—that may adversely affect children. Yet children are not equally susceptible to the pitfalls of deprived communities. Neighborhood has different effects depending on a child's age, race, and gender, while parenting techniques and a family's degree of community involvement also serve as mitigating factors.

    Volume II incorporates empirical data on neighborhood poverty into discussions of policy and program development. The contributors point to promising community initiatives and suggest methods to strengthen neighborhood-based service programs for children. Several essays analyze the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding the measurement of neighborhood characteristics. These essays focus on the need to expand scientific insight into urban poverty by drawing on broader pools of ethnographic, epidemiological, and quantitative data. Volume II explores the possibilities for a richer and more well-rounded understanding of neighborhood and poverty issues.

    To grasp the human cost of poverty, we must clearly understand how living in distressed neighborhoods impairs children's ability to function at every level. Neighborhood Poverty explores the multiple and complex paths between community, family, and childhood development. These two volumes provide and indispensable guide for social policy and demonstrate the power of interdisciplinary social science to probe complex social issues. (author abstract) 

    Table of Contents

    Introduction - Martha Gephart and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    Chapter 1: Ecological Perspectives on the Neighborhood Context of Urban Poverty: Past and Present - Robert Sampson and Jeffrey Morenoff

    Chapter 2: The Influence of Neighborhoods on Children's Development: A Theoretical Perspective and a Research Agenda - Frank Furstenberg and Mary Elizabeth Hughes

    Chapter 3: Bringing Families Back In: Neighborhood Effects on Child Development - Robin Jarrett

    Chapter 4: Understanding the Neighborhood Context for Children and Families: Combining Epidemiological and Ethnographic Approaches - Jill Korbin and Claudia Coulton

    Chapter 5: Sibling Estimates of Neighborhood Effects - Daniel Aaronson

    Chapter 6: Capturing Social Process for Testing Mediational Models of Neighborhood Effects - Thomas Cook, Shobha Shagle, and Serdar Degirmencioglu

    Chapter 7: Community Influences on Adolescent Achievement and Deviance - Nancy Darling and Laurence Steinberg

    Chapter 8: On Ways of Thinking about Measuring Neighborhoods: Implications for Studying Context and Developmental Outcomes for Children - Linda Burton, Townsand Price-Spratlen, and Margaret Beale Spencer 

    Chapter 9: An Alternative Approach to Assessing Neighborhood Effects on Early Adolescent Achievement and Problem Behavior - Margaret Beale Spencer, Paul McDermott, Linda Burton, and Tedd Jay Kochman

    Chapter 10: Neighborhood Effects and State and Local Policy - Prudence Brown and Harold Richman

    Chapter 11: Communities as Place, Face, and Space: Provision of Services to Poor, Urban Children and Their Families

  • Individual Author: Felitti, Vincent J.; Anda, Robert F.; Nordenberg, Dale; Williamson, David F.; Spitz, Alison M.; Edwards, Valerie; Koss, Mary P.; Marks, James S.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    Background: The relationship of health risk behavior and disease in adulthood to the breadth of exposure to childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, and household dysfunction during childhood has not previously been described.

    Methods: A questionnaire about adverse childhood experiences was mailed to 13,494 adults who had completed a standardized medical evaluation at a large HMO; 9,508 (70.5%) responded. Seven categories of adverse childhood experiences were studied: psychological, physical, or sexual abuse; violence against mother; or living with household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill or suicidal, or ever imprisoned. The number of categories of these adverse childhood experiences was then compared to measures of adult risk behavior, health status, and disease. Logistic regression was used to adjust for effects of demographic factors on the association between the cumulative number of categories of childhood exposures (range: 0--7) and risk factors for the leading causes of death in adult life.

    Results: More than half of respondents...

    Background: The relationship of health risk behavior and disease in adulthood to the breadth of exposure to childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, and household dysfunction during childhood has not previously been described.

    Methods: A questionnaire about adverse childhood experiences was mailed to 13,494 adults who had completed a standardized medical evaluation at a large HMO; 9,508 (70.5%) responded. Seven categories of adverse childhood experiences were studied: psychological, physical, or sexual abuse; violence against mother; or living with household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill or suicidal, or ever imprisoned. The number of categories of these adverse childhood experiences was then compared to measures of adult risk behavior, health status, and disease. Logistic regression was used to adjust for effects of demographic factors on the association between the cumulative number of categories of childhood exposures (range: 0--7) and risk factors for the leading causes of death in adult life.

    Results: More than half of respondents reported at least one, and one-fourth reported greater than or equal to 2 categories of childhood exposures. We found a graded relationship between the number of categories of childhood exposure and each of the adult health risk behaviors and diseases that were studied (P less than .001). Persons who had experienced four or more categories of childhood exposure, compared to those who had experienced none, had 4- to 12-fold increased health risks for alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, and suicide attempt; a 2- to 4-fold increase in smoking, poor self-rated health, greater or equal to 50 sexual intercourse partners, and sexually transmitted disease; and a 1.4- to 1.6-fold increase in physical inactivity and severe obesity. The number of categories of adverse childhood exposures showed a graded relationship to the presence of adult diseases including ischemic heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, skeletal fractures, and liver disease. The seven categories of adverse childhood experiences were strongly interrelated and persons with multiple categories of childhood exposure were likely to have multiple health risk factors later in life.

    Conclusions: We found a strong graded relationship between the breadth of exposure to abuse or household dysfunction during childhood and multiple risk factors for several of the leading causes of death in adults. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Trattner, Walter I.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1998

    Over twenty-five years and through five editions, Walter I. Trattner's From Poor Law to Welfare State has served as the standard text on the history of welfare policy in the United States. The only comprehensive account of American social welfare history from the colonial era to the present, the new sixth edition has been updated to include the latest developments in our society as well as trends in social welfare. Trattner provides in-depth examination of developments in child welfare, public health, and the evolution of social work as a profession, showing how all these changes affected the treatment of the poor and needy in America. He explores the impact of public policies on social workers and other helping professions -- all against the backdrop of social and intellectual trends in American history. From Poor Law to Welfare State directly addresses racism and sexism and pays special attention to the worsening problems of child abuse, neglect, and homelessness. Topics new to this sixth edition include:

    -A review of President Clinton's health-care reform and its...

    Over twenty-five years and through five editions, Walter I. Trattner's From Poor Law to Welfare State has served as the standard text on the history of welfare policy in the United States. The only comprehensive account of American social welfare history from the colonial era to the present, the new sixth edition has been updated to include the latest developments in our society as well as trends in social welfare. Trattner provides in-depth examination of developments in child welfare, public health, and the evolution of social work as a profession, showing how all these changes affected the treatment of the poor and needy in America. He explores the impact of public policies on social workers and other helping professions -- all against the backdrop of social and intellectual trends in American history. From Poor Law to Welfare State directly addresses racism and sexism and pays special attention to the worsening problems of child abuse, neglect, and homelessness. Topics new to this sixth edition include:

    -A review of President Clinton's health-care reform and its failure, and his efforts to "end welfare as we know it"

    -Recent developments in child welfare including an expanded section on the voluntary use of children's institutions by parents in the nineteenth century, and the continued discrimination against black youth in the juvenile justice system

    -An in-depth discussion of Charles Murray and Richard Herrnstein's controversial book, The Bell Curve, which provided social conservatives new weapons in their war on the black poor and social welfare in general

    -The latest information on AIDS and the reappearance of tuberculosis -- and their impact on public health policy

    -A new Preface and Conclusion, and substantially updated Bibliographies

    Written for students in social work and other human service professions, From Poor Law to Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in America is also an essential resource for historians, political scientists, sociologists, and policymakers. (publisher abstract)

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